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PLDI 2020
Mon 15 - Fri 19 June 2020

PLDI is a premier forum for programming language research, broadly construed, including design, implementation, theory, applications, and performance. PLDI seeks outstanding research that extends and/or applies programming-language concepts to advance the field of computing. Novel system designs, thorough empirical work, well-motivated theoretical results, and new application areas are all welcome emphases in strong PLDI submissions.

The main PLDI conference will take place in London, UK, Wednesday, 17 June through Friday, 19 June 2020.

Dates
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Wed 17 Jun

Displayed time zone: Pacific Time (US & Canada) change

04:45 - 05:00
05:00 - 06:00
05:00
20m
Talk
Typilus: Neural Type Hints
PLDI Research Papers
Miltiadis Allamanis Microsoft Research, Earl T. Barr University College London, UK, Soline Ducousso ENSTA Paris, France, Zheng Gao University College London, UK
05:20
20m
Talk
Learning Nonlinear Loop Invariants with Gated Continuous Logic Networks
PLDI Research Papers
Jianan Yao Columbia University, USA, Gabriel Ryan Columbia University, USA, Justin Wong Columbia University, USA, Suman Jana Columbia University, USA, Ronghui Gu Columbia University, USA
05:40
20m
Talk
Blended, Precise Semantic Program Embeddings
PLDI Research Papers
Ke Wang Visa Research, Zhendong Su ETH Zurich, Switzerland
06:20 - 07:40
Networking and HardwarePLDI Research Papers at PLDI Research Papers live stream
Chair(s): Luís Pina University of Illinois at Chicago

YouTube lightning session video

06:20
20m
Talk
NV: An Intermediate Language for Verification of Network Control Planes
PLDI Research Papers
Nick Giannarakis Princeton University, USA, Devon Loehr Princeton University, USA, Ryan Beckett Microsoft Research, USA, David Walker Princeton University, USA
06:40
20m
Talk
Compiler-Directed Soft Error Resilience for Lightweight GPU Register File Protection
PLDI Research Papers
Hongjune Kim Seoul National University, South Korea, Jianping Zeng Purdue University, USA, Qingrui Liu Virginia Tech, USA, Mohammad Abdel-Majeed University of Jordan, Jordan, Jaejin Lee Seoul National University, South Korea, Changhee Jung Purdue University, USA
07:00
20m
Talk
Adaptive Low-Overhead Scheduling for Periodic and Reactive Intermittent Execution
PLDI Research Papers
Kiwan Maeng Carnegie Mellon University, USA, Brandon Lucia Carnegie Mellon University, USA
07:20
20m
Talk
Detecting Network Load Violations for Distributed Control Planes
PLDI Research Papers
Kausik Subramanian University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA, Anubhavnidhi Abhashkumar University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA, Loris D'Antoni University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA, Aditya Akella University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA
08:00 - 09:00
08:00
20m
Talk
Data-Driven Inference of Representation Invariants
PLDI Research Papers
Anders Miltner Princeton University, USA, Saswat Padhi University of California at Los Angeles, USA, Todd Millstein University of California at Los Angeles, USA, David Walker Princeton University, USA
08:20
20m
Talk
Type Error Feedback via Analytic Program Repair
PLDI Research Papers
Georgios Sakkas University of California at San Diego, USA, Madeline Endres University of Michigan, USA, Benjamin Cosman University of California at San Diego, USA, Westley Weimer University of Michigan, USA, Ranjit Jhala University of California at San Diego, USA
08:40
20m
Talk
Synthesizing Structured CAD Models with Equality Saturation and Inverse Transformations
PLDI Research Papers
Chandrakana Nandi University of Washington, USA, Max Willsey University of Washington, USA, Adam Anderson University of Washington, USA, James R. Wilcox Certora, USA, Eva Darulova MPI-SWS, Germany, Dan Grossman University of Washington, USA, Zachary Tatlock University of Washington, Seattle
09:20 - 10:20
09:20
20m
Talk
Improving Program Locality in the GC using Hotness
PLDI Research Papers
Albert Mingkun Yang Uppsala University, Sweden, Erik Österlund Oracle, Sweden, Tobias Wrigstad Uppsala University, Sweden
09:40
20m
Talk
A Marriage of Pointer- and Epoch-Based Reclamation
PLDI Research Papers
Jeehoon Kang KAIST, Jaehwang Jung KAIST, South Korea
10:00
20m
Talk
CARAT: A Case for Virtual Memory through Compiler- and Runtime-Based Address Translation
PLDI Research Papers
Brian Suchy Northwestern University, USA, Simone Campanoni Northwestern University, USA, Nikos Hardavellas Northwestern University, USA, Peter Dinda Northwestern University, USA
10:40 - 12:00
10:40
20m
Talk
Verifying Concurrent Search Structure Templates
PLDI Research Papers
Siddharth Krishna Microsoft Research, Cambridge, Nisarg Patel New York University, USA, Dennis Shasha New York University, USA, Thomas Wies New York University, USA
11:00
20m
Talk
Armada: Low-Effort Verification of High-Performance Concurrent Programs
PLDI Research Papers
Jacob R. Lorch Microsoft Research, USA, Yixuan Chen University of Michigan, USA / Yale University, USA, Manos Kapritsos University of Michigan, USA, Bryan Parno Carnegie Mellon University, USA, Shaz Qadeer Novi, USA, Upamanyu Sharma University of Michigan, USA, James R. Wilcox Certora, USA, Xueyuan Zhao Carnegie Mellon University, USA
DOI
11:20
20m
Talk
Decidable Verification under a Causally Consistent Shared Memory
PLDI Research Papers
Ori Lahav Tel Aviv University, Israel, Udi Boker IDC Herzliya, Israel
11:40
20m
Talk
Inductive Sequentialization of Asynchronous Programs
PLDI Research Papers
Bernhard Kragl IST Austria, Constantin Enea University of Paris Diderot, France, Thomas A. Henzinger IST Austria, Austria, Suha Orhun Mutluergil IRIF, France / University of Paris, France / CNRS, France, Shaz Qadeer Novi, USA
13:00 - 14:00
13:00
20m
Talk
Compiler and Runtime Support for Continuation Marks
PLDI Research Papers
Matthew Flatt University of Utah, USA, R. Kent Dybvig Cisco Systems, USA
13:20
20m
Talk
Crafty: Efficient, HTM-Compatible Persistent Transactions
PLDI Research Papers
Kaan Genç Ohio State University, USA, Michael D. Bond Ohio State University, USA, Guoqing Harry Xu University of California at Los Angeles, USA
13:40
20m
Talk
From Folklore to Fact: Comparing Implementations of Stacks and Continuations
PLDI Research Papers
Kavon Farvardin University of Chicago, USA, John Reppy University of Chicago, USA
14:20 - 15:40
14:20
20m
Talk
Validating SMT Solvers via Semantic Fusion
PLDI Research Papers
Dominik Winterer ETH Zurich, Switzerland, Chengyu Zhang East China Normal University, Zhendong Su ETH Zurich, Switzerland
14:40
20m
Talk
Debugging and Detecting Numerical Errors in Computation with Posits
PLDI Research Papers
Sangeeta Chowdhary Rutgers University, USA, Jay P. Lim Rutgers University, USA, Santosh Nagarakatte Rutgers University, USA
15:00
20m
Talk
SmartTrack: Efficient Predictive Race Detection
PLDI Research Papers
Jake Roemer Ohio State University, USA, Kaan Genç Ohio State University, USA, Michael D. Bond Ohio State University, USA
15:20
20m
Talk
Understanding Memory and Thread Safety Practices and Issues in Real-World Rust Programs
PLDI Research Papers
Boqin Qin Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Pennsylvania State University, Yilun Chen Purdue University, USA, Zeming Yu Pennsylvania State University, USA, Linhai Song Pennsylvania State University, USA, Yiying Zhang University of California at San Diego, USA
16:00 - 17:00
SecurityPLDI Research Papers at PLDI Research Papers live stream
Chair(s): Tony Hosking Australian National University / Data61

YouTube lightning session video

16:00
20m
Talk
Towards a Verified Range Analysis for JavaScript JITs
PLDI Research Papers
Fraser Brown Stanford University, USA, John Renner University of California at San Diego, USA, Andres Nötzli Stanford University, USA, Sorin Lerner University of California at San Diego, USA, Hovav Shacham University of Texas at Austin, USA, Deian Stefan University of California at San Diego, USA
16:20
20m
Talk
Binary Rewriting without Control Flow Recovery
PLDI Research Papers
Gregory J. Duck National University of Singapore, Singapore, Xiang Gao National University of Singapore, Singapore, Abhik Roychoudhury National University of Singapore, Singapore
16:40
20m
Talk
BlankIt Library Debloating: Getting What You Want Instead of Cutting What You Don’t
PLDI Research Papers
Chris Porter Georgia Institute of Technology, USA, Girish Mururu Georgia Institute of Technology, USA, Prithayan Barua Georgia Institute of Technology, USA, Santosh Pande Georgia Institute of Technology, USA

Thu 18 Jun

Displayed time zone: Pacific Time (US & Canada) change

04:50 - 05:00
05:00 - 06:00
05:00
20m
Talk
Repairing and Mechanising the JavaScript Relaxed Memory Model
PLDI Research Papers
Conrad Watt University of Cambridge, UK, Christopher Pulte University of Cambridge, UK, Anton Podkopaev MPI-SWS, NRU HSE, JetBrains Research, Guillaume Barbier ENS Rennes, France, Stephen Dolan University of Cambridge, UK, Shaked Flur Google, Jean Pichon-Pharabod University of Cambridge, UK, Shu-yu Guo Bloomberg, USA
Pre-print
05:20
20m
Talk
Promising 2.0: Global Optimizations in Relaxed Memory Concurrency
PLDI Research Papers
Sung-Hwan Lee Seoul National University, South Korea, Minki Cho Seoul National University, South Korea, Anton Podkopaev MPI-SWS, NRU HSE, JetBrains Research, Soham Chakraborty IIT Delhi, India, Chung-Kil Hur Seoul National University, South Korea, Ori Lahav Tel Aviv University, Israel, Viktor Vafeiadis MPI-SWS, Germany
05:40
20m
Talk
NVTraverse: In NVRAM Data Structures, the Destination Is More Important Than the Journey
PLDI Research Papers
Michal Friedman Technion, Israel, Naama Ben-David Carnegie Mellon University, USA, Yuanhao Wei Carnegie Mellon University, USA, Guy E. Blelloch Carnegie Mellon University, USA, Erez Petrank Technion, Israel
06:20 - 07:40
06:20
20m
Talk
PMEvo: Portable Inference of Port Mappings for Out-of-Order Processors by Evolutionary Optimization
PLDI Research Papers
Fabian Ritter Saarland University, Germany, Sebastian Hack Saarland University, Germany
06:40
20m
Talk
PMThreads: Persistent Memory Threads Harnessing Versioned Shadow Copies
PLDI Research Papers
Zhenwei Wu National University of Defense Technology, China / University of Manchester, UK, Kai Lu National University of Defense Technology, China, Andrew Nisbet University of Manchester, UK, Wenzhe Zhang National University of Defense Technology, China, Mikel Luján University of Manchester, UK
07:00
20m
Talk
SympleGraph: Distributed Graph Processing with Precise Loop-Carried Dependency Guarantee
PLDI Research Papers
Youwei Zhuo University of Southern California, USA, Jingji Chen University of Southern California, USA, Qinyi Luo University of Southern California, USA, Yanzhi Wang Northeastern University, USA, Hailong Yang Beihang University, China, Depei Qian Beihang University, China, Xuehai Qian University of Southern California, USA
07:20
20m
Talk
SCAF: A Speculation-Aware Collaborative Dependence Analysis Framework
PLDI Research Papers
Sotiris Apostolakis Princeton University, USA, Ziyang Xu Princeton University, USA, Zujun Tan Princeton University, USA, Greg Chan Princeton University, USA, Simone Campanoni Northwestern University, USA, David I. August Princeton University, USA
DOI Pre-print Media Attached
09:20 - 10:20
09:20
20m
Talk
Predictable Accelerator Design with Time-Sensitive Affine Types
PLDI Research Papers
Rachit Nigam Cornell University, USA, Sachille Atapattu Cornell University, USA, Samuel Thomas Cornell University, USA, Zhijing Li Cornell University, USA, Theodore Bauer Cornell University, USA, Yuwei Ye Cornell University, USA, Apurva Koti Cornell University, USA, Adrian Sampson Cornell University, USA, Zhiru Zhang Cornell University, USA
09:40
20m
Talk
Type-Directed Scheduling of Streaming Accelerators
PLDI Research Papers
David Durst Stanford University, USA, Matthew Feldman Stanford University, USA, Dillon Huff Stanford University, USA, David Akeley University of California at Los Angeles, USA, Ross Daly Stanford University, USA, Gilbert Louis Bernstein University of California at Berkeley, USA, Marco Patrignani Stanford University, USA / CISPA, Germany, Kayvon Fatahalian Stanford University, USA, Pat Hanrahan Stanford University, USA
10:00
20m
Talk
FreezeML: Complete and Easy Type Inference for First-Class Polymorphism
PLDI Research Papers
Frank Emrich University of Edinburgh, UK, Sam Lindley Heriot-Watt University, UK / The University of Edinburgh, UK / Imperial College London, UK, Jan Stolarek University of Edinburgh, UK, James Cheney University of Edinburgh, UK, Jonathan Coates University of Edinburgh, UK
10:40 - 11:40
10:40
20m
Talk
Proving Data-Poisoning Robustness in Decision Trees
PLDI Research Papers
Samuel Drews University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA, Aws Albarghouthi University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA, Loris D'Antoni University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA
11:00
20m
Talk
A Study of the Learnability of Relational Properties: Model Counting Meets Machine Learning (MCML)
PLDI Research Papers
Muhammad Usman University of Texas at Austin, USA, Wenxi Wang University of Texas at Austin, USA, Marko Vasic University of Texas at Austin, USA, Kaiyuan Wang Google, USA, Haris Vikalo University of Texas at Austin, USA, Sarfraz Khurshid University of Texas at Austin, USA
11:20
20m
Talk
Learning Fast and Precise Numerical Analysis
PLDI Research Papers
Jingxuan He ETH Zurich, Switzerland, Gagandeep Singh ETH Zurich, Switzerland, Markus Püschel ETH Zurich, Switzerland, Martin Vechev ETH Zurich, Switzerland
11:40 - 13:00
PLDI Business MeetingPLDI Research Papers at Business Meeting live stream

The agenda for the business meeting will include:

  • General Chair’s report
  • Program Chair’s report + Distinguished Paper awards
  • Artifiact Evaluation Chairs’ report + Distinguished Artifact Award
  • Plans for PLDI 2021
  • A report on the State of SIGPLAN
11:40
80m
Talk
PLDI Business Meeting
PLDI Research Papers

13:00 - 14:00
13:00
20m
Talk
Automatic Generation of Efficient Sparse Tensor Format Conversion Routines
PLDI Research Papers
Stephen Chou Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA, Fredrik Kjolstad Stanford University, Saman Amarasinghe Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
Pre-print
13:20
20m
Talk
OOElala: Order-of-Evaluation Based Alias Analysis for Compiler Optimization
PLDI Research Papers
Ankush Phulia IIT Delhi, India, Vaibhav Bhagee IIT Delhi, India, Sorav Bansal IIT Delhi, India
13:40
20m
Talk
Effective Function Merging in the SSA Form
PLDI Research Papers
Rodrigo C. O. Rocha University of Edinburgh, UK, Pavlos Petoumenos University of Manchester, UK, Zheng Wang University of Leeds, UK, Murray Cole University of Edinburgh, UK, Hugh Leather University of Edinburgh, UK
14:20 - 15:40
14:20
20m
Talk
Silq: A High-Level Quantum Language with Safe Uncomputation and Intuitive Semantics
PLDI Research Papers
Benjamin Bichsel ETH Zurich, Switzerland, Maximilian Baader ETH Zurich, Switzerland, Timon Gehr ETH Zurich, Switzerland, Martin Vechev ETH Zurich, Switzerland
14:40
20m
Talk
The Essence of Bluespec: A Core Language for Rule-Based Hardware Design
PLDI Research Papers
Thomas Bourgeat Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA, Clément Pit-Claudel Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA, Adam Chlipala Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Arvind Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
15:00
20m
Talk
LLHD: A Multi-level Intermediate Representation for Hardware Description Languages
PLDI Research Papers
Fabian Schuiki ETH Zurich, Switzerland, Andreas Kurth ETH Zurich, Switzerland, Tobias Grosser ETH Zurich, Switzerland, Luca Benini ETH Zurich, Switzerland
Link to publication Pre-print
15:20
20m
Talk
On the Principles of Differentiable Quantum Programming Languages
PLDI Research Papers
Shaopeng Zhu University of Maryland, USA, Shih-Han Hung University of Maryland, USA, Shouvanik Chakrabarti University of Maryland, USA, Xiaodi Wu University of Maryland, USA
16:00 - 17:00
16:00
20m
Talk
Multi-modal Synthesis of Regular Expressions
PLDI Research Papers
Qiaochu Chen University of Texas at Austin, USA, Xinyu Wang University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, USA, Xi Ye University of Texas at Austin, USA, Greg Durrett University of Texas at Austin, USA, Isil Dillig University of Texas at Austin, USA
16:20
20m
Talk
Optimizing Homomorphic Evaluation Circuits by Program Synthesis and Term Rewriting
PLDI Research Papers
DongKwon Lee Seoul National University, South Korea, Woosuk Lee Hanyang University, South Korea, Hakjoo Oh Korea University, South Korea, Kwangkeun Yi Seoul National University, South Korea
16:40
20m
Talk
CacheQuery: Learning Replacement Policies from Hardware Caches
PLDI Research Papers
Pepe Vila IMDEA Software Institute, Spain, Pierre Ganty IMDEA Software Institute, Spain, Marco Guarnieri IMDEA Software Institute, Spain, Boris Köpf Microsoft Research, n.n.

Fri 19 Jun

Displayed time zone: Pacific Time (US & Canada) change

04:50 - 05:00
05:00 - 06:00
Probabilistic ProgrammingPLDI Research Papers at PLDI Research Papers live stream
Chair(s): Sasa Misailovic University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

YouTube lightning session video

05:00
20m
Talk
Proving Almost-Sure Termination by Omega-Regular Decomposition
PLDI Research Papers
Jianhui Chen Tsinghua University, China, Fei He Tsinghua University, China
05:20
20m
Talk
λPSI: Exact Inference for Higher-Order Probabilistic Programs
PLDI Research Papers
Timon Gehr ETH Zurich, Switzerland, Samuel Steffen ETH Zurich, Switzerland, Martin Vechev ETH Zurich, Switzerland
05:40
20m
Talk
Reactive Probabilistic Programming
PLDI Research Papers
Guillaume Baudart IBM Research, Louis Mandel IBM Research, Eric Atkinson Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA, Benjamin Sherman Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA, Marc Pouzet École normale supérieure, Michael Carbin Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
DOI Pre-print Media Attached
06:20 - 07:40
Parsing, Debugging, and Code SearchPLDI Research Papers at PLDI Research Papers live stream
Chair(s): Dan Barowy Williams College

YouTube lightning session video

06:20
20m
Talk
Faster General Parsing through Context-Free Memoization
PLDI Research Papers
Grzegorz Herman Jagiellonian University, Poland
06:40
20m
Talk
Zippy LL(1) Parsing with Derivatives
PLDI Research Papers
Romain Edelmann EPFL, Switzerland, Jad Hamza EPFL, Switzerland, Viktor Kunčak EPFL, Switzerland
07:00
20m
Talk
Debug Information Validation for Optimized Code
PLDI Research Papers
Yuanbo Li Georgia Institute of Technology, USA, Shuo Ding Georgia Institute of Technology, USA, Qirun Zhang Georgia Institute of Technology, USA, Davide Italiano Apple, USA
07:20
20m
Talk
Semantic Code Search via Equational Reasoning
PLDI Research Papers
Varot Premtoon Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA, James Koppel Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA, Armando Solar-Lezama Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
08:00 - 09:00
08:00
20m
Talk
Exact and Approximate Methods for Proving Unrealizability of Syntax-Guided Synthesis Problems
PLDI Research Papers
Qinheping Hu University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA, John Cyphert University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA, Loris D'Antoni University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA, Thomas Reps University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA
08:20
20m
Paper
Question Selection for Interactive Program Synthesis
PLDI Research Papers
Ruyi Ji Peking University, China, Jingjing Liang Peking University, China, Yingfei Xiong Peking University, China, Lu Zhang Peking University, China, Zhenjiang Hu Peking University, China
Pre-print
08:40
20m
Talk
Reconciling Enumerative and Deductive Program Synthesis
PLDI Research Papers
Kangjing Huang Purdue University, USA, Xiaokang Qiu Purdue University, USA, Peiyuan Shen Purdue University, USA, Yanjun Wang Purdue University, USA
09:20 - 10:20
Smart ContractsPLDI Research Papers at PLDI Research Papers live stream
Chair(s): Ilya Sergey Yale-NUS College and National University of Singapore

YouTube lightning session video

09:20
20m
Talk
Securing Smart Contract with Runtime Validation
PLDI Research Papers
Ao Li University of Toronto, Canada, Jemin Andrew Choi University of Toronto, Canada, Fan Long University of Toronto, Canada
09:40
20m
Talk
Ethainter: A Smart Contract Security Analyzer for Composite Vulnerabilities
PLDI Research Papers
Lexi Brent International Computer Science Institute, USA / University of Sydney, Australia, Neville Grech University of Athens, Greece, Sifis Lagouvardos University of Athens, Greece, Bernhard Scholz University of Sydney, Australia, Yannis Smaragdakis University of Athens, Greece
10:00
20m
Talk
Behavioral Simulation for Smart Contracts
PLDI Research Papers
Sidi Mohamed Beillahi IRIF - Université de Paris, Gabriela Ciocarlie SRI International, Michael Emmi Amazon Web Services, Constantin Enea University of Paris Diderot, France
10:40 - 12:00
Verification IIPLDI Research Papers at PLDI Research Papers live stream
Chair(s): Manu Sridharan University of California Riverside

YouTube lightning session video

10:40
20m
Talk
Scalable Validation of Binary Lifters
PLDI Research Papers
Sandeep Dasgupta University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA, Sushant Dinesh University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA, Deepan Venkatesh University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA, Vikram S. Adve University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA, Christopher W. Fletcher University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
11:00
20m
Talk
Polynomial Invariant Generation for Non-deterministic Recursive Programs
PLDI Research Papers
Krishnendu Chatterjee IST Austria, Austria, Hongfei Fu Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China, Amir Kafshdar Goharshady IST Austria, Austria, Ehsan Kafshdar Goharshady Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
11:20
20m
Talk
Templates and Recurrences: Better Together
PLDI Research Papers
Jason Breck University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA, John Cyphert University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA, Zachary Kincaid Princeton University, USA, Thomas Reps University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA
11:40
20m
Talk
First-Order Quantified Separators
PLDI Research Papers
Jason R. Koenig Stanford University, USA, Oded Padon Stanford University, USA, Neil Immerman University of Massachusetts at Amherst, USA, Alex Aiken Stanford University, USA
13:00 - 14:00
Symbolic ExecutionPLDI Research Papers at PLDI Research Papers live stream
Chair(s): Qirun Zhang Georgia Institute of Technology, USA

YouTube lightning session video

13:00
20m
Talk
Constant-Time Foundations for the New Spectre Era
PLDI Research Papers
Sunjay Cauligi University of California at San Diego, USA, Craig Disselkoen University of California at San Diego, USA, Klaus v. Gleissenthall University of California at San Diego, USA, Dean Tullsen University of California at San Diego, USA, Deian Stefan University of California at San Diego, USA, Tamara Rezk Inria, France, Gilles Barthe MPI for Security and Privacy, Germany / IMDEA Software Institute, Spain
13:20
20m
Talk
Gillian, Part I: A Multi-language Platform for Symbolic Execution
PLDI Research Papers
José Fragoso Santos INESC-ID/Instituto Superior Técnico, Portugal , Petar Maksimović Imperial College London, UK, Sacha-Élie Ayoun Imperial College London, UK, Philippa Gardner Imperial College London, UK
DOI
13:40
20m
Talk
Efficient Handling of String-Number Conversion
PLDI Research Papers
Parosh Aziz Abdulla Uppsala University, Sweden, Mohamed Faouzi Atig Uppsala University, Sweden, Yu-Fang Chen Academia Sinica, Taiwan, Bui Phi Diep Uppsala University, Sweden, Julian Dolby IBM Research, USA, Petr Janků Brno University of Technology, Czechia, Hsin-Hung Lin Academia Sinica, Taiwan, Lukáš Holík Brno University of Technology, Czechia, Wei-Cheng Wu University of Southern California, USA
14:20 - 15:40
14:20
20m
Talk
HipHop.js: (A)Synchronous Reactive Web Programming
PLDI Research Papers
Gérard Berry Collège de France, France, Manuel Serrano Inria, France
14:40
20m
Talk
EVA: An Encrypted Vector Arithmetic Language and Compiler for Efficient Homomorphic Computation
PLDI Research Papers
Roshan Dathathri University of Texas at Austin, USA, Blagovesta Kostova EPFL, Switzerland, Olli Saarikivi Microsoft Research, Redmond, Wei Dai Microsoft Research, n.n., Kim Laine Microsoft Research, Redmond, Madan Musuvathi Microsoft Research
15:00
20m
Talk
Towards an API for the Real Numbers
PLDI Research Papers
15:20
20m
Talk
Responsive Parallelism with Futures and State
PLDI Research Papers
Stefan K. Muller Carnegie Mellon University, USA, Kyle Singer Washington University in St. Louis, USA, Noah Goldstein Washington University in St. Louis, USA, Umut A. Acar Carnegie Mellon University, USA, Kunal Agrawal Washington University in St. Louis, USA, I-Ting Angelina Lee Washington University in St. Louis, USA
16:00 - 17:00
16:00
20m
Talk
Automated Derivation of Parametric Data Movement Lower Bounds for Affine Programs
PLDI Research Papers
Auguste Olivry Inria, France, Julien Langou University of Colorado at Denver, USA, Louis-Noël Pouchet Colorado State University, USA, Saday Sadayappan University of Utah, USA, Fabrice Rastello Inria, France
16:20
20m
Talk
Fast Graph Simplification for Interleaved Dyck-Reachability
PLDI Research Papers
Yuanbo Li Georgia Institute of Technology, USA, Qirun Zhang Georgia Institute of Technology, USA, Thomas Reps University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA
16:40
20m
Talk
Static Analysis of Java Enterprise Applications: Frameworks and Caches, the Elephants in the Room
PLDI Research Papers
Anastasios Antoniadis University of Athens, Greece, Nikos Filippakis CERN, Switzerland, Paddy Krishnan Oracle Labs, Australia, Raghavendra Ramesh ConsenSys, Australia, Nicholas Allen Oracle Labs, Australia, Yannis Smaragdakis University of Athens, Greece
Pre-print

Call for Papers

PLDI is a premier forum for programming language research, broadly construed, including design, implementation, theory, applications, and performance. PLDI seeks outstanding research that extends and/or applies programming-language concepts to advance the field of computing. Novel system designs, thorough empirical work, well-motivated theoretical results, and new application areas are all welcome emphases in strong PLDI submissions.

Authors of empirical papers are encouraged to consider the seven categories of the SIGPLAN Empirical Evaluation Guidelines when preparing their submissions.

Evaluation Criteria and Process

Reviewers will evaluate each contribution for its accuracy, significance, originality, and clarity. Submissions should be organized to communicate clearly to a broad programming-language audience as well as to experts on the paper’s topics. Papers should identify what has been accomplished and how it relates to previous work.

Deadlines and formatting requirements, detailed below, will be strictly enforced, with extremely rare extenuating circumstances considered at the discretion of the Program Chair.

In almost all cases, reviews will be performed by a subset of the Program Committee (PC), the External Program Committee (EPC), and the External Review Committee (ERC). Authors will have the opportunity to respond to initial reviews to correct and clarify technical concerns. The PC will make final accept/reject decisions except for papers with PC authors—such papers will have no PC reviewers and the EPC will make final decisions.

Authors may contact only the Program Chair about submitted papers during and after the review process. Contacting PC, EPC, or ERC members about submitted paper(s) is an ethical violation and may be grounds for summary rejection.

Double-Blind Reviewing

PLDI uses double-blind reviewing. This means that author names and affiliations must be omitted from the submission. Additionally, if the submission refers to prior work done by the authors, that reference should be made in third person. These are firm submission requirements. Any supplementary material must also be anonymized.

The FAQ on Double-Blind Reviewing clarifies the policy for the most common scenarios. But there are many gray areas and trade-offs. If you have any doubts about how to interpret the double blind rules, please contact the Program Chair. Overestimate the need to contact the Program Chair for complex cases that are not fully covered by the FAQ.

Submission Site Information

The submission site is https://pldi2020.hotcrp.com.

Authors can submit multiple times prior to the (firm!) deadline. Only the last submission will be reviewed. There is no abstract deadline. The submission site requires entering author names and affiliations, relevant topics, and potential conflicts. Addition or removal of authors after the submission deadline will need to be approved by the Program Chair (as this kind of change potentially undermines the goal of eliminating conflicts during paper assignment).

The submission deadline is 11:59PM November 22, 2019 anywhere on earth: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anywhere_on_Earth

Declaring Conflicts

When submitting the paper, you will need to declare potential conflicts. Conflicts should be declared between an adviser and an advisee (e.g., Ph.D., post-doc). Other conflicts include institutional conflicts, financial conflicts of interest, friends or relatives, or any recent co-authors on papers and proposals (last 2 years).

Please do not declare spurious conflicts: such incorrect conflicts are especially harmful if the aim is to exclude potential reviewers, so spurious conflicts can be grounds for rejection. If you are unsure about a conflict, please consult the Program Chair.

Formatting Requirements

Papers should be formatted according to the two-column ACM proceedings format. Each paper should have no more than 12 pages, excluding bibliography, in 10pt font. There is no limit on the page count for references. Each reference must list all authors of the paper (do not use et al). The citations should be in numeric style, e.g., [52]. Submissions should be in PDF format and printable on US Letter and A4 sized paper. These requirements are all the same as in the previous year.

Papers that exceed the length requirement or deviate from the expected format will be rejected.

Make sure that figures and tables are legible, even after the paper is printed in gray-scale.

Appendices should not be part of the paper, but should be submitted as supplementary material. Supplementary material should also be anonymized, as described below. These requirements are also the same as last year.

As explained in more detail at http://www.sigplan.org/Resources/Author, LaTeX users should use the sigplan subformat of the acmart format by downloading acmart-sigplanproc.zip. Word users should use the acmart template for Word. These are the same files as last year. Please note the following:

  • acmart-sigplanproc-template.tex has the correct defaults for PLDI 2020 submissions. Specifically, the first line should be \documentclass[sigplan,10pt,review,anonymous]{acmart}\settopmatter{printfolios=true,printccs=false,printacmref=false}. The default citation style is numeric.
  • Do not mess with the class file or settings to try to sneak in additional space. (Conversely, you may toggle the printccs and printacmref flags if you wish, but these changes will consume space.)
  • Do not use the PACMPL files or format; PLDI is not using them. However, the template files were designed to make migrating a paper from one format to the other as simple as possible.

Supplementary Material

Authors are free to provide supplementary material if that material supports the claims in the paper. Such material may include proofs, experimental results, and/or data sets. This material should be uploaded at the same time as the submission. Reviewers are not required to examine the supplementary material but may refer to it if they would like to find further evidence supporting the claims in the paper.

Plagiarism and Concurrent Work

Papers must describe unpublished work that is not currently submitted for publication elsewhere as described by the SIGPLAN Republication Policy: http://www.sigplan.org/Resources/Policies/Republication/. Authors should also be aware of the ACM Policy on Plagiarism: https://www.acm.org/publications/policies/plagiarism-overview. Concurrent submissions to other conferences, workshops, journals, or similar venues of publication are disallowed. Prior work must, as always, be cited and referred to in the third person even if it is the authors’ work, so as to preserve author anonymity. If you have further questions, contact the Program Chair.

Artifact Evaluation for Accepted Papers

The authors of accepted PLDI papers will be invited to submit supporting materials to the Artifact Evaluation process. Artifact Evaluation is run by a separate committee whose task is to assess how well the artifacts support the work described in the papers. This submission is voluntary but encouraged and will not influence the final decision regarding the papers. Papers that go through the Artifact Evaluation process successfully will receive a badge printed on the papers themselves. Authors of accepted papers are encouraged to make these materials publicly available upon publication of the proceedings, by including them as “source materials” in the ACM Digital Library.

Accepted Papers

Accepted papers will be made available (once the conference starts and for one month following) via 1-click download from the ACM Digital Library.

PLDI welcomes all authors, regardless of nationality. If authors are unable despite reasonable effort to obtain visas to travel to the conference, we will make arrangements to enable remote participation or presentation by another attendee on behalf of the authors.

Publication Date

AUTHORS TAKE NOTE: The official publication date is the date the proceedings are made available in the ACM Digital Library. This date may be up to two weeks prior to the first day of your conference. The official publication date affects the deadline for any patent filings related to published work. (For those rare conferences whose proceedings are published in the ACM Digital Library after the conference is over, the official publication date remains the first day of the conference.)

Acknowledgments

This call-for-papers is an adaptation and evolution of content from previous instances of PLDI. We are grateful to prior organizers for their work, which is reused here.

Accepted Papers

Title
A Marriage of Pointer- and Epoch-Based Reclamation
PLDI Research Papers
A Study of the Learnability of Relational Properties: Model Counting Meets Machine Learning (MCML)
PLDI Research Papers
Adaptive Low-Overhead Scheduling for Periodic and Reactive Intermittent Execution
PLDI Research Papers
Armada: Low-Effort Verification of High-Performance Concurrent Programs
PLDI Research Papers
DOI
Automated Derivation of Parametric Data Movement Lower Bounds for Affine Programs
PLDI Research Papers
Automatic Generation of Efficient Sparse Tensor Format Conversion Routines
PLDI Research Papers
Pre-print
Behavioral Simulation for Smart Contracts
PLDI Research Papers
Binary Rewriting without Control Flow Recovery
PLDI Research Papers
BlankIt Library Debloating: Getting What You Want Instead of Cutting What You Don’t
PLDI Research Papers
Blended, Precise Semantic Program Embeddings
PLDI Research Papers
CARAT: A Case for Virtual Memory through Compiler- and Runtime-Based Address Translation
PLDI Research Papers
CacheQuery: Learning Replacement Policies from Hardware Caches
PLDI Research Papers
Compiler and Runtime Support for Continuation Marks
PLDI Research Papers
Compiler-Directed Soft Error Resilience for Lightweight GPU Register File Protection
PLDI Research Papers
Constant-Time Foundations for the New Spectre Era
PLDI Research Papers
Crafty: Efficient, HTM-Compatible Persistent Transactions
PLDI Research Papers
Data-Driven Inference of Representation Invariants
PLDI Research Papers
Debug Information Validation for Optimized Code
PLDI Research Papers
Debugging and Detecting Numerical Errors in Computation with Posits
PLDI Research Papers
Decidable Verification under a Causally Consistent Shared Memory
PLDI Research Papers
Detecting Network Load Violations for Distributed Control Planes
PLDI Research Papers
EVA: An Encrypted Vector Arithmetic Language and Compiler for Efficient Homomorphic Computation
PLDI Research Papers
Effective Function Merging in the SSA Form
PLDI Research Papers
Efficient Handling of String-Number Conversion
PLDI Research Papers
Ethainter: A Smart Contract Security Analyzer for Composite Vulnerabilities
PLDI Research Papers
Exact and Approximate Methods for Proving Unrealizability of Syntax-Guided Synthesis Problems
PLDI Research Papers
Fast Graph Simplification for Interleaved Dyck-Reachability
PLDI Research Papers
Faster General Parsing through Context-Free Memoization
PLDI Research Papers
First-Order Quantified Separators
PLDI Research Papers
FreezeML: Complete and Easy Type Inference for First-Class Polymorphism
PLDI Research Papers
From Folklore to Fact: Comparing Implementations of Stacks and Continuations
PLDI Research Papers
Gillian, Part I: A Multi-language Platform for Symbolic Execution
PLDI Research Papers
DOI
HipHop.js: (A)Synchronous Reactive Web Programming
PLDI Research Papers
Improving Program Locality in the GC using Hotness
PLDI Research Papers
Inductive Sequentialization of Asynchronous Programs
PLDI Research Papers
LLHD: A Multi-level Intermediate Representation for Hardware Description Languages
PLDI Research Papers
Link to publication Pre-print
Learning Fast and Precise Numerical Analysis
PLDI Research Papers
Learning Nonlinear Loop Invariants with Gated Continuous Logic Networks
PLDI Research Papers
Multi-modal Synthesis of Regular Expressions
PLDI Research Papers
NV: An Intermediate Language for Verification of Network Control Planes
PLDI Research Papers
NVTraverse: In NVRAM Data Structures, the Destination Is More Important Than the Journey
PLDI Research Papers
OOElala: Order-of-Evaluation Based Alias Analysis for Compiler Optimization
PLDI Research Papers
On the Principles of Differentiable Quantum Programming Languages
PLDI Research Papers
Optimizing Homomorphic Evaluation Circuits by Program Synthesis and Term Rewriting
PLDI Research Papers
PMEvo: Portable Inference of Port Mappings for Out-of-Order Processors by Evolutionary Optimization
PLDI Research Papers
PMThreads: Persistent Memory Threads Harnessing Versioned Shadow Copies
PLDI Research Papers
Polynomial Invariant Generation for Non-deterministic Recursive Programs
PLDI Research Papers
Predictable Accelerator Design with Time-Sensitive Affine Types
PLDI Research Papers
Promising 2.0: Global Optimizations in Relaxed Memory Concurrency
PLDI Research Papers
Proving Almost-Sure Termination by Omega-Regular Decomposition
PLDI Research Papers
Proving Data-Poisoning Robustness in Decision Trees
PLDI Research Papers
Question Selection for Interactive Program Synthesis
PLDI Research Papers
Pre-print
Reactive Probabilistic Programming
PLDI Research Papers
DOI Pre-print Media Attached
Reconciling Enumerative and Deductive Program Synthesis
PLDI Research Papers
Repairing and Mechanising the JavaScript Relaxed Memory Model
PLDI Research Papers
Pre-print
Responsive Parallelism with Futures and State
PLDI Research Papers
SCAF: A Speculation-Aware Collaborative Dependence Analysis Framework
PLDI Research Papers
DOI Pre-print Media Attached
Scalable Validation of Binary Lifters
PLDI Research Papers
Securing Smart Contract with Runtime Validation
PLDI Research Papers
Semantic Code Search via Equational Reasoning
PLDI Research Papers
Silq: A High-Level Quantum Language with Safe Uncomputation and Intuitive Semantics
PLDI Research Papers
SmartTrack: Efficient Predictive Race Detection
PLDI Research Papers
Static Analysis of Java Enterprise Applications: Frameworks and Caches, the Elephants in the Room
PLDI Research Papers
Pre-print
SympleGraph: Distributed Graph Processing with Precise Loop-Carried Dependency Guarantee
PLDI Research Papers
Synthesizing Structured CAD Models with Equality Saturation and Inverse Transformations
PLDI Research Papers
Templates and Recurrences: Better Together
PLDI Research Papers
The Essence of Bluespec: A Core Language for Rule-Based Hardware Design
PLDI Research Papers
Towards a Verified Range Analysis for JavaScript JITs
PLDI Research Papers
Towards an API for the Real Numbers
PLDI Research Papers
Type Error Feedback via Analytic Program Repair
PLDI Research Papers
Type-Directed Scheduling of Streaming Accelerators
PLDI Research Papers
Typilus: Neural Type Hints
PLDI Research Papers
Understanding Memory and Thread Safety Practices and Issues in Real-World Rust Programs
PLDI Research Papers
Validating SMT Solvers via Semantic Fusion
PLDI Research Papers
Verifying Concurrent Search Structure Templates
PLDI Research Papers
Zippy LL(1) Parsing with Derivatives
PLDI Research Papers
λPSI: Exact Inference for Higher-Order Probabilistic Programs
PLDI Research Papers

General

Q: Why are you using double-blind reviewing?

A: Studies have shown that a reviewer’s attitude toward a submission may be affected, even unconsciously, by the identity of the authors. We want reviewers to be able to approach each submission without any such, possibly involuntary, pre-judgment. Many computer science conferences have embraced double-blind reviewing. PLDI has used it for several years now and doing so is stipulated in the Practices of PLDI.

Q: Do you really think blinding actually works? I suspect reviewers can often guess who the authors are anyway.

A: It is rare for authorship to be guessed correctly, even by expert reviewers, as detailed in this study.

Q: Couldn’t blind submission create an injustice where a paper is inappropriately rejected based upon supposedly-prior work which was actually by the same authors and not previously published?

A: Reviewers are held accountable for their positions and are required to identify any supposed prior work that they believe undermines the novelty of the paper. Any assertion that “this has been done before” by reviewers should be supported with concrete information. The author response mechanism exists in part to hold reviewers accountable for claims that may be incorrect.

For authors

Q: What exactly do I have to do to anonymize my paper?

A: Use common sense. Your job is not to make your identity undiscoverable but simply to make it possible for reviewers to evaluate your submission without having to know who you are. The specific guidelines stated in the call for papers are simple: omit authors’ names from your title page, and when you cite your own work, refer to it in the third person. For example, if your name is Smith and you have worked on amphibious type systems, instead of saying “We extend our earlier work on statically typed toads [Smith 2004],” you might say “We extend Smith’s [2004] earlier work on statically typed toads.” Also, be sure not to include any acknowledgements that would give away your identity. In general, you should aim to reduce the risk of accidental unblinding. For example, if your paper is the first to describe a system with a well-known name or codename, or you use a personally-identifiable naming convention for your work, then use a different name for your submission (which you may indicate has been changed for the purposes of double-blind reviewing). You should also avoid revealing the institutional affiliation of authors or at which the work was performed.

Q: I would like to provide supplementary material for consideration, e.g., the code of my implementation or proofs of theorems. How do I do this?

A (and also see the next question): On the submission site there will be an option to submit supplementary material along with your main paper. This supplementary material should also be anonymized—it may be viewed by reviewers during the review period, so it should adhere to the same double-blind guidelines.

Q: My submission is based on code available in a public repository. How do I deal with this?

A: Making your code publicly available is not incompatible with double-blind reviewing. You should do the following. First, cite the code in your paper, but remove the actual URL and, instead say “link to repository removed for double blind review” or similar. Second, if, when writing your author response, you believe reviewer access to your code would help, say so in your author response (without providing the URL), and send the URL to the Program Chair.

Q: I am building on my own past work on the WizWoz system. Do I need to rename this system in my paper for purposes of anonymity, so as to remove the implied connection between my authorship of past work on this system and my present submission?

A: Maybe. The core question is really whether the system is one that, once identified, automatically identifies the author(s) and/or the institution. If the system is widely available, and especially if it has a substantial body of contributors and has been out for a while, then these conditions may not hold (e.g., LLVM or HotSpot), because there would be considerable doubt about authorship. By contrast, a paper on a modification to a proprietary system (e.g., Visual C++, or a research project that has not open-sourced its code) implicitly reveals the identity of the authors or their institution. If naming your system essentially reveals your identity (or institution), then anonymize it. In your submission, point out that the system name has been anonymized. If you have any doubts, please contact the Program Chair.

Q: I am submitting a paper that extends my own work that previously appeared at a workshop. Should I anonymize any reference to that prior work?

A: No. But we recommend you do not use the same title for your PLDI submission, so that it is clearly distinguished from the prior paper. In general, there is rarely a good reason to anonymize a citation. One possibility is for work that is tightly related to the present submission and is also under review. When in doubt, contact the Program Chair.

Q: Am I allowed to post my (non-blinded) paper on my web page? Can I advertise the unblinded version of my paper on mailing lists or send it to colleagues? Can I give a talk about my work while it is under review? How do I handle social media? What about ArXiV?

A: We have developed guidelines, described here, to help everyone navigate in the same way the tension between the normal communication of scientific results, which double-blind reviewing should not impede, and actions that essentially force potential reviewers to learn the identity of the authors for a submission. Roughly speaking, you may (of course!) discuss work under submission, but you should not broadly advertise your work through media that is likely to reach your reviewers. We acknowledge there are gray areas and trade-offs; we cannot describe every possible scenario.

Things you may do:

  • Put your submission on your home page.
  • Discuss your work with anyone who is not on the review committees, or with people on the committees with whom you already have a conflict.
  • Present your work at professional meetings, job interviews, etc.
  • Submit work previously discussed at an informal workshop, previously posted on ArXiV or a similar site, previously submitted to a conference not using double-blind reviewing, etc.

Things you should not do:

  • Contact members of the review committees about your work, or deliberately present your work where you expect them to be.
  • Publicize your work on major mailing lists used by the community (because potential reviewers likely read these lists).
  • Publicize your work on social media if wide public [re-]propagation is common (e.g., Twitter) and therefore likely to reach potential reviewers. For example, on Facebook, a post with a broad privacy setting (public or all friends) saying, “Whew, PLDI paper in, time to sleep” is okay, but one describing the work or giving its title is not appropriate. Alternately, a post to a group including only the colleagues at your institution is fine.

Reviewers will not be asked to recuse themselves from reviewing your paper unless they feel you have gone out of your way to advertise your authorship information to them. If you are unsure about what constitutes “going out of your way”, please contact the Program Chair.

Q: Will the fact that PLDI is double-blind have an impact on handling conflicts-of interest?

A: Double-blind reviewing does not change the principle that reviewers should not review papers with which they have a conflict of interest, even if they do not immediately know who the authors are. Authors declare conflicts-of-interest when submitting their papers using the guidelines in the call-for-papers. Papers will not be assigned to reviewers who have a conflict.

For reviewers

Q: What should I do if I if I learn the authors’ identity? What should I do if a prospective PLDI author contacts me and asks to visit my institution?

A: If you feel that the authors’ actions are largely aimed at ensuring that potential reviewers know their identity, contact the Program Chair. Otherwise you should not treat double-blind reviewing differently from other reviewing. In particular, refrain from seeking out information on the authors’ identity, but if you discover it accidentally this will not automatically disqualify you as a reviewer. Use your best judgment.

Q: The authors have provided a URL to supplemental material. I would like to see the material but I worry they will snoop my IP address and learn my identity. What should I do?

A: Contact the Program Chair, who will download the material on your behalf and make it available to you.

Q: If I am assigned a paper for which I feel I am not an expert, how do I seek an outside review?

A: PC and ERC members should do their own reviews, not delegate them to someone else. If doing so is problematic for some papers, e.g., you don’t feel completely qualified, then consider the following options. First, submit a review for your paper that is as careful as possible, outlining areas where you think your knowledge is lacking. Assuming we have sufficient expert reviews, that could be the end of it: non-expert reviews are valuable too, since conference attendees are by-and-large not experts for any given paper. Second, the review form provides a mechanism for suggesting additional expert reviewers to the PC Chair, who may contact them if additional expertise is needed. Please do not contact outside reviewers yourself. As a last resort, if you feel like your review would be extremely uninformed and you’d rather not even submit a first cut, contact the Program Chair.

Q: How do we handle potential conflicts of interest since I cannot see the author names?

A: The conference review system will ask that you identify conflicts of interest when you get an account on the submission system. Feel free to also identify additional authors whose papers you feel you could not review fairly for reasons other than those given (e.g., strong personal friendship).

Q: How should I avoid learning the authors’ identity if I am using web-search in the process of performing my review?

A: You should make a good-faith effort not to find the authors’ identity during the review period, but if you inadvertently do so, this does not disqualify you from reviewing the paper. As part of the good-faith effort, do not use search engines with terms like the paper’s title or the name of a new system being discussed. If you need to search for related work you believe exists, do so after completing a preliminary review of the paper.


These guidelines are an evolution of guidelines originally created by Michael Hicks for POPL 2012, slightly modified for PLDI 2012 by Frank Tip, shortened by Keshav Pingali for PLDI 2014, modified slightly by Steve Blackburn for PLDI 2015, and then edited by Emery Berger for PLDI 2016, Dan Grossman for PLDI 2018, Kathleen Fisher for PLDI 2019, and finally by Emina Torlak for PLDI 2020.